娇宠素绵绵H,调教越发敏感注射药物

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NFPA 2112

娇宠素绵绵H,调教越发敏感注射药物 NFPA 2112, the standard for flame-resistant garments for protection of industrial personnel against flash fire, is published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). The National Fire Protection Association has served as an authority in the U.S. on fire, electricity and building safety since 1896. The purpose of the standard is to "provide minimum requirements for the design, construction, evaluation, and certification of flame-resistant garments for use by industrial personnel, with the intent of providing a degree of protection to the wearer and reducing the severity of burn injuries resulting from accidental exposure to hydrocarbon flash fires" NFPA 2112 is a voluntary consensus standard, not a law. However, OSHA recognizes NFPA 2112 as a generally accepted industry practice.

Who NFPA 2112 covers

NFPA 2112 was developed to protect industrial workers and primarily those in the oil and petrochemical industries against flash fires. A flash fire is defined as "a fire that spreads rapidly through a diffuse fuel, such as dust, gas, or the vapors of an ignitable liquid, without the production of damaging pressure". Flash fires are unplanned exposures that typically last three seconds or less. NFPA 2112 does not apply to protective clothing for electrical flashes, wildland fire fighting, technical rescue, structural fire fighting, proximity fire fighting, or any fire fighting operations or hazardous materials emergencies.

What NFPA 2112 requires娇宠素绵绵H,调教越发敏感注射药物

Organizations must conduct a hazard assessment of the work environment to determine if flammable chemicals are present in quantities necessary to generate a flash fire. If a flash-fire hazard does exist, the requirements for wearing flame-resistant clothing shall be based on the potential hazards that workers are exposed to as part of their work duties. Factors in determining if flame-resistant clothing is required shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • The potential for the task being performed to increase the possibility of a flammable release; this could result from a mechanical failure such as a line breaking.
  • The presence of engineering controls designed to reduce exposure to flammable materials present during Operating conditions of the process - that is, potential for flammable fumes or vapors, and so forth.
  • The presence of engineering controls designed to reduce exposure to flammable materials present during normal operations.
  • Accident history. If it is determined that flame-resistant clothing is required, the garments shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 2112 and be labeled accordingly.

In order for garments to be meet NFPA 2112 standards all components of the garment must be tested and certified by a 3rd party. The most common certification is completed by UL. A garment will include a label showing that it is UL Classified. Customers can also check garment certification on the UL website.

Summary

For the oil and petrochemical industries, NFPA 2112:

  • Mandates that employers conduct a flash-fire hazard assessment to determine the risk of a flash fire.
  • Requires employees to wear flame-resistant clothing if the potential for a flash fire exists.

OSHA娇宠素绵绵H,调教越发敏感注射药物

娇宠素绵绵H,调教越发敏感注射药物The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.269 covers the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission and distribution lines and equipment. Part (l) (6) (iii) states: "The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazards of flames or electric arc does not wear clothing that, when exposed to flames or electric arcs, could increase the extent of the injury that would be sustained by the employee". This is the only federal law relating to FR clothing for electrical purposes. It is currently being rewritten and is expected to closely mirror the NFPA70E and NESC standards.

Carhartt FR garments that meet NFPA 2112 standards for the oil & gas industry have been classified by Underwriters Laboratories (UL).

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NESC

Published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) sets the ground rules for practical safeguarding of persons during the installation, operation, or maintenance of electric supply and communication lines and associated equipment. The NESC contains the basic provisions that are considered necessary for the safety of employees and the public under the specified conditions. Although not a federal law (some states do make the NESC law), NESC is a voluntary consensus standard, and is the standard OSHA refers to when abating electrical safety in the utility industry. Although the NESC has been in existence since 1973, the 2007 revision marked the first time that flame-resistant, arc-rated clothing was included as a safety requirement and the 2012 version expanded arc-rated clothing down to lower voltages with complete tables specifying apparel requirements from 4 cal/cm 2 through 60 cal/cm 2.

Who NESC covers

NESC is specific to the electrical utility industry and "covers the electric supply conductors and equipment . . .(including) electric supply stations, that are accessible only to qualified personnel." NESC basically applies to all electric utility work performed at investor-owned utilities, electric co-ops and municipalities.

What NESC requires

The NESC Rule 410A3 governing the use of flame-resistant, arc-rated clothing for electrical utilities, requires the following:

  • Effective January 1, 2009, the employer shall ensure that an assessment is performed to determine potential exposure to an electric arc for employees who work on or near energized parts or equipment. The 2012 rule added low voltage equipment to the >1000V equipment requirement in 2007.
  • If the assessment determines a potential employee exposure greater than 2 cal/cm2 exists, the employer shall require the employee to wear clothing or a clothing system that has an effective arc rating at least equal to the anticipated level of arc energy.
  • When exposed to an electric arc or flame, clothing made from the following materials shall not be worn: Acetate, nylon, polyester, or polypropylene unless arc rated in a blend.
  • The effective arc rating of clothing or a clothing system to be worn shall be determined using Tables 410-1, 410-2, and 410-3 or performing an arc hazard analysis.
  • When an arc hazard analysis is performed, it shall include a calculation of the estimated arc energy based on the available fault current, the duration of the arc (cycles), and the worker distance from the potential hazard.

娇宠素绵绵H,调教越发敏感注射药物 EXCEPTION : If the clothing required by this rule has the potential to create additional and greater hazards than the possible exposure to the heat energy of the electric arc, then clothing with an arc rating or ATPV less than that required by the rule can be worn. This is normally allowed for uncommon work methods such as helicopter work on live power lines.

Summary

For electric utilities, NESC:

  • Specifies that employers conduct a hazard risk assessment to determine the potential arc exposure for employees who work on or near energized parts or equipment.
  • Requires employees to wear flame-resistant clothing with an ATPV, or cal rating, equal to or greater than the determined arc hazard.

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